Emergent African Immig Philanthropy NYC part 3

Part 3 of the reading of my chapter "EMERGENT AFRICAN IMMIGRANT PHILANTHROPY IN NEW YORK CITY" in J. Krase and R. Hutchison, eds. 2004. Race and Ethnicity in New York CityResearch in Urban Sociology, Volume 7, 181–193.I now turn to definitions. Here, I give a brief definition of refugees. 

Philanthropy is one of the central ideals of African traditional mores. It is nowonder then that African philanthropy takes many forms within New YorkCity’s immigrant community. The key features of immigrant African philanthropy include the prominent role of informal institutions, lack of visibility to external observers and non-members of group, and small-scale philanthropic efforts by groups organized along ethnic, kinship, and national lines. Globalization shapes the decision to become an immigrant, the location chosen for settlement, and the challenges faced in both home country and country of settlement. Many African immigrant organizations are male dominated in leadership and decision making, with an emphasis on volunteerism and recognition of those with leadership skills.Professional associations tend to be national rather than continent-wide. Because the focus of these groups is derived from the historical experience of their members, there is high interest in foreign policy issues, and U.S. foreign policy toward Africa is subjected to much discussion, debate and thought. However, the presence of African immigrants is too limited to be felt in policy advocacy circles.  


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